Showing posts from October, 2023

Indian Councils act of 1861

The Indian Councils Act of 1861, also known as the First Indian Councils Act, was a significant piece of legislation during the British colonial rule in India. It marked an important step in the gradual process of constitutional reforms and political representation in British India. Prior to the 1861 Act, India was governed by the British East India Company, and political representation was limited to the British rulers and a few appointed Indian officials. The 1857 Indian Rebellion (Sepoy Mutiny) had highlighted the need for greater Indian participation in governance to prevent future uprisings and foster cooperation. This Act initiated the process of decentralisation by restoring the legislative powers to the Bombay and the Madras Presidencies. It accorded statutory recognition to the Portfolio System. Features of Indian Councils act of 1861 Lord Canning, who was the Governor-General and Viceroy at the time, introduced the portfolio system. In this system, each member was assigned

Cell Size and Cell Shape

Cell size and shape are fundamental attributes that play a critical role in the biology of living organisms. Understanding the dimensions and configurations of cells is central to comprehending their functions, behaviors, and adaptations to their environments. Some cells have fixed shape. (e.g., most plants and animal cells), while some cells like WBCs and Amoeba keep changing their shapes and are pleomorphic. Fixed shaped cells may be of various types like elliptical (e.g., fat cell), spherical (e.g., ovum), spindle-shaped (e.g., smooth muscle cell), knobbed thread (e.g., sperm), discoidal (e.g., RBC), elongated (e.g., nerve cells), etc. Different sizes of cell: Mycoplasmas, the smallest cells, are only 0.3 µm in length. Bacteria could be 3 to 5 µm.  The largest isolated single cell is the egg of an ostrich 18 cm. Human red blood cells are about 7.0 µm in diameter.  Longest cells of human body are the nerve cells, which may reach up to a length of 90 cm.

Government of India Act of 1858

The Government of India Act of 1858, also known as the Act for the Good Government of India, represents a pivotal moment in the history of British colonial rule in India. This act was a direct response to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a widespread and violent uprising against British domination in India.  The act marked a significant shift in governance, leading to the end of the rule of the British East India Company and the beginning of direct British control over India by the British Crown.  This change in administration had far-reaching consequences for India's political, social, and economic landscape, as well as its relationship with the British Empire. This comprehensive exploration of the Government of India Act of 1858 delves into its historical context, key provisions, impacts on India and its people, and the long-term consequences it had on India's path toward independence. Features of Government of India Act 1858 This act made India a direct British colony. The Boa

Cell Theory

The cell theory was propounded by German biologists,  Matthias Schleiden,  lawyer turned botanist (1838) and  Theodo Schwann,  zoologist (1839). According to this theory, all the plants and animals are composed of cells.  The cell is the basic unit of life. Important tenets of cell theory are:  In spite of the enormous diversity of living organisms, all organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the structural unit of life. In 1858, the German pathologist  Rudolf Virchow  added a third principle to the cell theory. Virchow stated that all cells arise from the division of  pre-existing cells  (Latin phrase  "omnis cellula-e-cellula" ). Louis Pasteur (1862) experimentally demonstrated  that life originates from pre-existing cells. The discovery of electron microscope in 1940 made it possible to observe and understand the complex structure of the cell and its various organelles. Based on the number of cells, an organism may be unicellular or multicellular. The org

Discovery of Cell

The term  cell  (Gr. kytos, cell; L. cella, hollow space) was first coined by an English microscopist  Robert Hooke  in 1665.  Robert Hooke saw under the microscope as cell was really the empty cell walls of dead plant tissue. He observed that there was a honeycomb like structure and he named the parts of the structure as cells. The figures of cork cells as seen by Robert Hooke were published in a collection of essays under the title Micrographia in London. Antony van Leeuwenhoek , a Dutch drapery merchant (1674), was the first to observe  free living cells,  like bacteria, protozoa, red blood cells and sperms, etc., using his homemade microscope. Leeuwenhoek meaningfully enriched the eminence of microscope lenses to the point that he could distinguish the single-celled organisms that dwelt in a drop of pond water. He entitled these organisms as "animalcules," which represents "miniature animals." Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till   (1961)  are credited with th

Constitutional Development in India #MCQ Practice Set 04

01. What did the Charter Act of 1833 do to the trade monopoly of the British East India Company? Strengthened the monopoly Abolished the monopoly Expanded the monopoly to new regions None of the above 02. Which commission was established to codify laws and regulations in India as per the Charter Act of 1833? Indian Law Commission Indian Legal Codification Committee Law Reform Commission of India Charter Law Codification Board 03. The Charter Act of 1833 granted freedom of the press subject to: Approval by the local magistrate Approval by the Governor-General Approval by the British Parliament Certain restrictions 04. The Charter Act of 1833 abolished the Provincial Courts of Appeal and transferred their powers to: Supreme Court of India Governor-General-in-Council Legislative Council Provincial Governors 05. Which Act for the first time made it possible for Indians to take some share in the administration of their country? Charter Act of 1833 Charter Act of 1813 Charter Act of 1853 Cha

Charter Act of 1853

The East India Company’s last charter act was the one from 1853. In contrast to preceding charter acts from 1793, 1813, and 1833, which extended the charter for 20 years, the Charter Act of 1853 reaffirmed the Company's authority and permitted it to keep the territories and revenues of Indian lands in the trust of the Crown for an unspecified amount of time. The Charter Act of 1853, officially titled "An Act for the Better Government of India".  It represents a significant moment in the history of British rule in India. When the charter act of 1853 was passed, Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India. The Charter Act of 1853 is extremely important since it inaugurates India’s parliamentary system. Features of the Charter Act, 1833: The executive and council functions of the Governor-legislative General were divided for the first time. Six new legislative councilors, as they were referred to, were to be added to the council. In other words, it established a unique

World Osteoporosis Day

World Osteoporosis Day, observed on 20 October annually, is a global awareness campaign aimed at highlighting the importance of bone health and raising awareness about osteoporosis, a common but often overlooked condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more susceptible to fractures.  Note - "Osteoporosis is a medical condition characterized by weakened bones, making them fragile and susceptible to fractures or breaks. It occurs when the body loses too much bone mass or doesn't produce enough new bone, leading to a reduction in bone density. This disease often progresses silently, with no symptoms until a fracture occurs. Common areas for fractures include the hips, spine, and wrists. Factors like aging, hormonal changes, inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake, a sedentary lifestyle, and certain medications can increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. Prevention involves a balanced diet, regular exercise, and bone density screenings." This day serves as

Constitutional Development in India #MCQ Practice Set 03

01. The Charter Act of 1813 allowed the British East India Company to retain its monopoly over trade in which territory? Southeast Asia Australia Africa China 02. Which Act of British Parliament abolished the East India Company monopoly over the trade in India? Regulating Act, 1773 Charter Act, 1813 Pitts India Act, 1784  Act of Settlement, 1781 03.  How much fund was allocated for promoting education in India as per the Charter Act of 1813? 50,000 rupees 75,000 rupees 1,00,000 rupees 1,50,000 rupees 04. The Charter Act of 1813 ended the monopoly of the British East India Company in trade, except in which areas? Cotton and tea Spices and silk Cotton and opium Tea, opium and trade with China 05. What did the Charter Act of 1813 require the East India Company to submit to the British Parliament annually? Reports on military victories in India Reports on revenue and expenditures Reports on diplomatic relations with Indian princely states Reports on demographic changes in India 06. The Cha

International Day for the Eradication of Poverty

International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is celebrated every year on 17 October. The day is dedicated to create awareness and promote global measures for the prevention of poverty. One of the major challenges in the world that needs to be addressed for the betterment of society is Poverty. The International Poverty Eradication Day is an opportunity to highlight the problems faced by underprivileged people in their day-to-day lives, and provide necessary support to them. Poor people struggle to live a normal life and are deprived from basic human rights like education, health, and employment. Eradicating poverty is a chance for the world to promote equality, and allow people from all sectors to live with honour and dignity. International Day for the Eradication of Poverty serves as a platform to foster economic stability on a global level and encourage social inclusion. The International Day for the Eradication of Poverty traces its origins back to October 17, 1987, when over a

Constitutional Development in India #MCQ Practice Set 02

01. The Pitt's India Act was instrumental in transferring control over Indian affairs from the Court of Directors to: British Parliament East India Company Governor-General of Bengal Indian princely states 02. The Pitt's India Act of 1784 aimed to improve the financial stability of the East India Company by: Granting a monopoly on tea trade Imposing heavy taxes on Indian trade Restructuring the Company's debt Abolishing Company trade privileges 03. The Pitt's India Act established the Governor-General of Bengal as the highest authority in India. Who was the first individual to hold this position under the provisions of this act? Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Sir John Shore Lord Wellesley 04. The Pitt's India Act of 1784 aimed to strike a balance between centralized control and local governance by granting significant powers to the Governor-General, but subject to the oversight of the: British Parliament Indian Councils Court of Directors Indian National Congress 0

Plantation Crops

Plantation crops are agricultural crops that are grown, managed, and harvested on a large scale as a monoculture. These crops are typically cultivated on extensive land holdings known as plantations, where specific management practices are employed to ensure optimal growth and production. Plantation agriculture is common in tropical and subtropical regions due to the favorable climate conditions for these crops. The primary characteristic of these crops is that they are high-value cash crops, grown commercially for the purpose of sale rather than personal consumption. Plantations, centered on a plantation house, grow crops including cotton, cannabis, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, fruits, rubber trees and forest trees.  Plantation farming is characterized by its large scale, monoculture setup, intensive use of labor, and significant capital investment. These crops usually have a long gestation period and require a sizable labor force for their car

World Food Day

World Food Day, celebrated annually on October 16th, is a day dedicated to addressing global hunger and promoting food security. This significant day marks the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 1945. World Food Day aims to raise awareness about hunger, malnutrition, food wastage, and sustainable agriculture. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation was founded back in 1945. Thirty-four years after that, member countries of the Food and Agriculture Organisation established World Food Day in November 1979 at the organisation's 20th General Conference and called for the observance of World Food Day on 16 October, 1981. This decision was ratified by the UN General Assembly on 5 December 1980 and urged governments and international, national and local organizations to contribute to celebrating World Food Day. Since 1981, World Food Day has been held every year. World Food Day serves as a critical reminder of the importance of ac

Charter Act of 1833

The Charter Act of 1833 was passed in the British Parliament which renewed the East India Company's charter for another 20 years. This was also called the Government of India Act 1833 or the Saint Helena Act 1833. The Act centralized the administration of British India by concentrating legislative and executive powers in the hands of the Governor-General of India. This further established the Governor-General as the chief executive authority in India. The monopoly of the British East India Company on trade with India was abolished. This Act was the final steps towards centralisation in British India. Features of the Charter Act, 1833: It made the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India and give him called civil and military powers. Lord William Bentinck was the first governor general of India. The Act established a legislative council in India to assist the Governor-General. This council was composed of four members of the Governor-General's Executive Counc