Subatomic Particles

Subatomic particles are particles that are smaller than an atom, constituting the building blocks of atoms and forming the basis of all matter. These particles include electrons, protons and neutrons, which are the three primary subatomic particles found within atoms.

These subatomic particles play crucial roles in determining the properties of atoms and molecules. Protons and neutrons contribute to the mass of the atom and are involved in nuclear reactions, while electrons are responsible for chemical bonding and the formation of chemical compounds through interactions with other atoms. Understanding the characteristics and behavior of subatomic particles is essential for comprehending the structure of matter and the behavior of atoms in various chemical and physical processes.

Electron:

An electron is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge -1.602 × 10⁻¹⁹ coulombs and has a mass of approximately 9.109 × 10⁻³¹ kilograms. It is one of the fundamental constituents of matter and is found orbiting the nucleus of an atom. Electrons are classified as elementary particles and participate in chemical bonding, forming molecules and compounds. They exhibit wave-particle duality and play a crucial role in various physical phenomena, including electricity, magnetism, and quantum mechanics, and are fundamental to the functioning of electronic devices.

Proton:

A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It carries a positive electric charge +1.602 x 10⁻¹⁹ coulombs and has a mass of approximately 1.673 x 10⁻²⁷ kilograms. Protons are classified as hadrons and are composed of three quarks, specifically two up quarks and one down quark. The number of protons in an atom determines its atomic number, which, in turn, determines the chemical properties of the element. Protons contribute to the stability of atomic nuclei through the strong nuclear force and are essential for the structure of matter.

Neutron:

A neutron is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is electrically neutral, meaning it carries no net electric charge 0 (zero) coulombs and has a mass of approximately 1.675 x 10⁻²⁷ kilograms. Neutrons are also classified as hadrons and are composed of three quarks, specifically one up quark and two down quarks. Neutrons contribute to the stability of atomic nuclei through the strong nuclear force, which binds them together with protons. The number of neutrons in an atom can vary, leading to different isotopes of the same element. Neutrons play a crucial role in nuclear reactions and are used in various scientific and industrial applications.

Note- The nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, is the central core of the atom and contains nearly all of its mass. The electrons, which are much lighter than protons and neutrons, orbit the nucleus in various energy levels or shells, occupying regions of space known as orbitals.








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