Rutherford's Model of Atom - MCQ Practice Set

01. What was the primary objective of Rutherford's scattering experiment?
a) To investigate the chemical properties of gold atoms
b) To test Thomson's Plum Pudding Model of the atom
c) To study the behavior of electrons in the gold foil
d) To measure the mass of α–particles
Answer: b) To test Thomson's Plum Pudding Model of the atom
Explanation: Rutherford's primary objective was to investigate the structure of the atom and test the Plum Pudding Model proposed by J.J. Thomson. The experiment aimed to understand how α–particles interacted with the atoms in the gold foil, which would provide insights into the atomic structure.

02. What were the observations made during Rutherford's scattering experiment?
a) Most of the α–particles were absorbed by the gold foil
b) A majority of the α–particles passed through the gold foil undeflected
c) All α–particles were deflected by large angles
d) None of the α–particles interacted with the gold foil
Answer: b) A majority of the α–particles passed through the gold foil undeflected
Explanation: The observations from Rutherford's experiment showed that most of the α–particles passed through the gold foil undeflected, indicating that the atom is mostly empty space. This contradicted Thomson's Plum Pudding Model, which suggested a uniform distribution of positive charge throughout the atom.

03. What was the significance of the few α–particles being deflected by large angles in Rutherford's experiment?
a) It confirmed Thomson's Plum Pudding Model
b) It indicated the presence of negatively charged electrons
c) It revealed the existence of a positively charged nucleus
d) It disproved the existence of the nucleus in an atom
Answer: c) It revealed the existence of a positively charged nucleus
Explanation: The deflection of a few α–particles by large angles suggested the presence of a concentrated positive charge within the atom, which repelled the positively charged α–particles. This observation led Rutherford to propose the existence of a dense, positively charged nucleus at the center of the atom.

04. How did Rutherford calculate the size of the nucleus compared to the size of the atom?
a) By measuring the mass of the gold foil
b) By analyzing the energy of α–particles
c) By comparing the radius of the atom to the radius of the nucleus
d) By determining the number of electrons in the gold foil
Answer: c) By comparing the radius of the atom to the radius of the nucleus
Explanation: Rutherford calculated the size of the nucleus compared to the size of the atom by comparing their respective radii. He found that the nucleus occupies a negligibly small volume compared to the total volume of the atom, with the radius of the nucleus being much smaller than that of the atom.

05. What model of the atom did Rutherford propose based on the observations from his scattering experiment?
a) Bohr's model of the atom
b) Thomson's Plum Pudding Model
c) The nuclear model of the atom
d) The electron cloud model of the atom
Answer: c) The nuclear model of the atom
Explanation: Based on the observations from his scattering experiment, Rutherford proposed the nuclear model of the atom in 1911. This model suggested that the atom consists of a dense, positively charged nucleus at the center, surrounded by negatively charged electrons in orbit around the nucleus.

06. Which statement accurately describes the size comparison between the atom and its nucleus in Rutherford's model?
a) The nucleus is much larger than the atom
b) The atom and the nucleus are approximately the same size
c) The nucleus is negligibly small compared to the atom
d) The nucleus occupies the entire volume of the atom
Answer: c) The nucleus is negligibly small compared to the atom
Explanation: Rutherford's calculations showed that the nucleus is negligibly small compared to the total volume of the atom. The vast majority of the atom's volume consists of empty space, with the nucleus occupying only a tiny fraction of the atom's volume.

07. What did the deflection of α–particles in Rutherford's scattering experiment reveal about the atom?
a) The presence of negatively charged electrons
b) The existence of positively charged protons
c) The uniform distribution of positive charge
d) The absence of any subatomic particles
Answer: b) The existence of positively charged protons
Explanation: The deflection of α–particles by the positively charged nucleus revealed the existence of a concentrated positive charge within the atom. This led to the inference that the atom contains positively charged particles, later identified as protons.

08. How did Rutherford's model of the atom differ from Thomson's Plum Pudding Model?
a) Rutherford proposed the existence of electrons within the nucleus
b) Rutherford suggested that the atom is mostly empty space
c) Rutherford identified the presence of a positively charged nucleus
d) Rutherford concluded that the atom has a uniform distribution of charge
Answer: c) Rutherford identified the presence of a positively charged nucleus
Explanation: Rutherford's model differed from Thomson's Plum Pudding Model by proposing the existence of a dense, positively charged nucleus at the center of the atom. This nucleus was surrounded by negatively charged electrons, which orbited the nucleus in a manner similar to planets orbiting the sun.

09. According to Rutherford's nuclear model of the atom, where is most of the atom's mass and positive charge concentrated?
a) In the electron cloud
b) Spread evenly throughout the atom
c) In a tiny, dense nucleus at the center
d) In the orbiting electrons
Answer: c) In a tiny, dense nucleus at the center
Explanation: Rutherford's model proposed that the atom's mass and positive charge are concentrated in a small, dense nucleus at the center.

10. What particles were later discovered to contribute to the mass of the nucleus, along with protons?
a) Electrons
b) Neutrons
c) Alpha particles
d) Beta particles
Answer: b) Neutrons
Explanation: Neutrons were discovered by physicist James Chadwick in 1932 and were found to contribute to the mass of the nucleus along with protons.

11. In Rutherford's nuclear model, what holds the electrons and nucleus together?
a) Gravitational forces
b) Strong nuclear forces
c) Electrostatic forces of attraction
d) Weak nuclear forces
Answer: c) Electrostatic forces of attraction
Explanation: According to Rutherford's model, the electrons and nucleus are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction.

12. Which of the following is NOT a limitation or defect of Rutherford's nuclear model?
a) It fails to explain the stability of atoms.
b) It does not describe the electronic structure of atoms.
c) It does not explain the relationship between atomic mass and atomic number.
d) It accurately predicts the behavior of electrons.
Answer: d) It accurately predicts the behavior of electrons.
Explanation: While Rutherford's model made significant advancements, it did not accurately predict the behavior of electrons, especially regarding stability and electronic structure.

13. According to Rutherford's model, why should electrons spiral into the nucleus?
a) Due to gravitational forces
b) Due to weak nuclear forces
c) Due to radiation emitted while accelerating
d) Due to magnetic forces
Answer: c) Due to radiation emitted while accelerating
Explanation: Rutherford's model failed to explain the stability of atoms because it did not account for the radiation emitted by accelerating electrons, which would cause them to spiral into the nucleus.

14. What did Rutherford's model fail to explain about the hydrogen spectrum?
a) The existence of certain definite lines
b) The continuous spectrum
c) The emission of X-rays
d) The variation in intensity of spectral lines
Answer: a) The existence of certain definite lines
Explanation: Rutherford's model could not explain the existence of certain definite lines in the hydrogen spectrum, which later models addressed.

15. Who discovered the neutron, addressing a limitation of Rutherford's model?
a) Ernest Rutherford
b) James Clerk Maxwell
c) Niels Bohr
d) James Chadwick
Answer: d) James Chadwick
Explanation: James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932, which addressed a limitation of Rutherford's model by providing a particle to account for the atomic mass without contributing to the positive charge of the nucleus.


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